Title
Prevalence of sleep disturbances among young adults in three European countries Prevalence of sleep disturbances among young adults in three European countries
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
New York, N.Y. ,
Subject
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Sleep. - New York, N.Y., 1978, currens
Volume/pages
18(1995) :7 , p. 589-597
ISSN
0161-8105
1550-9109
ISI
A1995RW45400010
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to study the geographic variation in sleep complaints and to identify risk factors for sleep disturbances in three European countries: Iceland (Reykjavik), Sweden (Uppsala and Goteborg) and Belgium (Antwerp). The study involved a random population of 2,202 subjects (age 20-45 years) who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The subjects answered a questionnaire on sleep disturbances. Participants in Iceland and Sweden also estimated their sleep habits and sleep times during a period of 1 week in a sleep diary. Habitual (greater than or equal to 3/week) difficulties inducing sleep (DIS) were reported by 6-9% and early morning awakenings by 5-6% of the subjects. The estimated number of awakenings and the prevalence of nightmares was significantly lower in Reykjavik. Participants in Reykjavik went to bed at night and woke in the morning approximately 1 hour later than participants at the Swedish centers (p < 0.001). Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were associated with DIS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7), nightmares (OR = 4.4), longer sleep latency and frequent nocturnal awakenings. Smoking correlated positively to DIS (OR = 1.8) and estimated sleep latency. We conclude that the prevalence of DIS was fairly similar at these four European centers but that there was a variation in the prevalence of nightmares and nocturnal awakenings. The significant correlation between reported GER and subjective quality of sleep should be followed up in studies using objective measurements.
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