Title
Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransductionDeiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Veterinary Sciences
Research group
Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE)
Veterinary physiology and biochemistry
Publication type
article
Publication
Subject
Biology
Engineering sciences. Technology
Source (journal)
PLoS ONE
Volume/pages
10(2015):4, 22 p.
ISSN
1932-6203
1932-6203
Article Reference
e0123285
Carrier
E-only publicatie
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance during vertebrate embryonic development.
Full text (open access)
https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/irua/d8b536/7b1397d6.pdf
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