Publication
Title
In vitro and in vivo human metabolism of the synthetic cannabinoid AB-CHMINACA
Author
Abstract
N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-CHMINACA) is a recently introduced synthetic cannabinoid. At present, no information is available about in vitro or in vivo human metabolism of AB-CHMINACA. Therefore, biomonitoring studies to screen AB-CHMINACA consumption lack any information about the potential biomarkers (e.g. metabolites) to target. To bridge this gap, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of AB-CHMINACA using human liver microsomes (HLMs). Formation of AB-CHMINACA metabolites was monitored using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-six metabolites of AB-CHMINACA were detected including seven mono-hydroxylated and six di-hydroxylated metabolites and a metabolite resulting from N-dealkylation of AB-CHMINACA, all produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Two carboxylated metabolites, likely produced by amidase enzymes, and five glucuronidated metabolites were also formed. Five mono-hydroxylated and one carboxylated metabolite were likely the major metabolites detected. The involvement of individual CYPs in the formation of AB-CHMINACA metabolites was tested using a panel of seven human recombinant CYPs (rCYPs). All the hydroxylated AB-CHMINACA metabolites produced by HLMs were also produced by the rCYPs tested, among which rCYP3A4 was the most active enzyme. Most of the in vitro metabolites of AB-CHMINACA were also present in urine obtained from an AB-CHMINACA user, therefore showing the reliability of the results obtained using the in vitro metabolism experiments conducted to predict AB-CHMINACA in vivo metabolism. The AB-CHMINACA metabolites to target in biomonitoring studies using urine samples are now reliably identified and can be used for routine analysis.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Drug testing and analysis
Publication
2015
ISSN
1942-7603
1942-7611
Volume/pages
7:10(2015), p. 866-876
ISI
000362691800002
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
Full text (publisher's version - intranet only)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 28.04.2015
Last edited 10.11.2017
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