Title
Effect of the burn-out step on the microstructure of the solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)<tex>$Se_{2}$</tex> solar cells
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Lausanne ,
Subject
Physics
Source (journal)
Thin solid films: an international journal on the science and technology of thin and thick films. - Lausanne
Volume/pages
583(2015) , p. 142-150
ISSN
0040-6090
ISI
000353812400024
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
For the development of the photovoltaic industry cheap methods for the synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGSe) based solar cells are required. In this work, CIGSe thin films were obtained by a solution-based method using oxygen-bearing derivatives. With the aimof improving the morphology of the printed CIGSe layers, we investigated two different annealing conditions of the precursor layer, consisting of (1) a direct selenization step (reference process), and (2) a pre-treatment thermal step prior to the selenization. We showed that the use of an Air/H2S burn-out step prior to the selenization step increases the CIGSe grain size and reduces the carbon content. However, it leads to the reduction of the solar cell efficiency from 4.5% in the reference sample down to 0.5% in the annealed sample. Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis, including high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray mapping, was applied to characterize the microstructure of the film and to determine the relationship between microstructure and the solar cell performance. We demonstrated that the relatively low efficiency of the reference solar cells is related not only to the nanosize of the CIGSe grains and presence of the pores in the CIGSe layer, but also to the high amount of secondary phases, namely, In/Ga oxide (or hydroxide) amorphous matter, residuals of organicmatter (carbon), and copper sulfide that is formed at the CIGSe/MoSe2 interface. The annealing in H2S during the burn-out step leads to the formation of the copper sulfide at all grain boundaries and surfaces in the CIGSe layer, which results in the noticeably efficiency drop. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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