Mixed-valent, heteroleptic homometallic diketonates as templates for the design of volatile heterometallic precursorsMixed-valent, heteroleptic homometallic diketonates as templates for the design of volatile heterometallic precursors
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Electron microscopy for materials research (EMAT)
2015Cambridge :Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
Chemical science. - Cambridge, 2010, currens
6(2015):5, p. 2835-2842
University of Antwerp
A novel series of mixed-valent, heteroleptic transition metal diketonates that can be utilized as prospective single-source precursors for the low-temperature preparation of oxide materials are reported. The first mixed-valent iron beta-diketonates with different Fe-III/Fe-II ratios have been synthesized by applying the mixed-ligand approach. Based on nearly quantitative reaction yields and analysis of iron-oxygen bonds, these compounds were formulated as [Fe-III(acac)(3)][Fe-II(hfac)(2)] (1) and [Fe-II(hfac)(2)][Fe-III(acac)(3)][Fe-II(hfac)(2)] (2). In the above heteroleptic complexes, the Lewis acidic, coordinatively unsaturated Fe-II centers chelated by two hfac (hexafluoroacetylacetonate) ligands with electron-withdrawing substituents maintain bridging interactions with oxygen atoms of electron-donating acac (acetylacetonate) groups that chelate the neighboring Fe-III atoms. Switching the ligands on Fe-III and Fe-II atoms in starting reagents resulted in the instant ligand exchange between iron centers and in yet another polynuclear homometallic diketonate [Fe-II(hfac)(2)][Fe-III(acac)(2)(hfac)][Fe-II(hfac)(2)] (3) that adheres to the same bonding pattern as in complexes 1 and 2. The proposed synthetic methodology has been extended to design heterometallic diketonates with different M : M' ratios. Homometallic parent molecules have been used as templates to obtain heterometallic mixed-valent [Fe-III(acac)(3)][Mn-II(hfac)(2)] (4) and [Ni-II(hfac)(2)] - [Fe-III(acac)(3)][Ni-II(hfac)(2)] (5) complexes. The combination of two different diketonate ligands with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents was found to be crucial for maintaining the above mixed-valent heterometallic assemblies. Theoretical investigation of two possible "isomers", [Fe-III(acac)(3)][Mn-II(hfac)(2)] (4) and [Mn-III(acac)(3)][Fe-II(hfac)(2)] (40) provided an additional support for the metal site assignment giving a preference of 9.78 kcal mol(-1) for the molecule 4. Heterometallic complexes obtained in the course of this study have been found to act as effective single-source precursors for the synthesis of mixed-transition metal oxide materials MxM2-xO3 and MxMi-xO. The title highly volatile precursors can be used for the low-temperature preparation of both amorphous and crystalline heterometallic oxides in the form of thin films or nanosized particles that are known to operate as efficient catalysts in oxygen evolution reaction.