Longitudinal monitoring of metabolic alterations in cuprizone mouse model of multiple sclerosis using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Neuroimage. - New York
, p. 128-135
University of Antwerp
Non-invasive measures of well-known pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) such as demyelination, inflammation and axonal injury would serve as useful markers to monitor disease progression and evaluate potential therapies. To this end, in vivo localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) provides a powerful means to monitor metabolic changes in the brain and may be sensitive to these pathological hallmarks. In our study, we used the cuprizone mouse model to study pathological features of MS, such as inflammation, de- and remyelination, in a highly reproducible manner. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with a 0.2% cuprizone diet for 6-weeks to induce demyelination, thereafter the mice were put on a cuprizone free diet for another 6 weeks to induce spontaneous remyelination. We employed in vivo 1H-MRS to longitudinally monitor metabolic changes in the corpus callosum of cuprizone-fed mice during the demyelination (weeks 4 and 6) and spontaneous remyelination (week 12) phases. The MRS spectra were quantified with LCModel and since the total creatine (tCr) levels did not change over time or between groups, metabolite concentrations were expressed as ratios relative to tCr. After 4 and 6 weeks of cuprizone treatment a significant increase in taurine/tCr and a significant reduction in total N-acetylaspartate/tCr, total choline-containing compounds/tCr and glutamate/tCr could be observed compared to mice under normal diet. At week 12, when almost full remyelination was established, no statistically significant metabolic differences were present between the control and cuprizone group. Our results suggest that these metabolic changes may represent sensitive markers for cuprizone induced demyelination, axonal injury and inflammation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal in vivo 1H-MRS study that monitored biochemical changes in the corpus callosum of cuprizone fed mice.