Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [] under phosphorus stress
Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C-3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P-limitation responses in plants. Analysis of expression patterns of some typical P-limitation induced genes under high [CO2] suggests that long-term exposure of plants to high [CO2] would have a tendency to stimulate similar transcriptional responses as observed under P-limitation. However, studies on the combined effect of high [CO2] and low P on gene expression are scarce. Such studies would provide insights into the development of P efficient crops in the context of anticipated increases in atmospheric [CO2]. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Source (journal)
Biotechnology advances. - Oxford
Oxford : Pergamon-elsevier science ltd, 2015
33:3-4(2015), p. 303-316
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Creation 03.09.2015
Last edited 27.06.2017
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