Title
Is beak morphology in Darwin's finches tuned to loading demands? Is beak morphology in Darwin's finches tuned to loading demands?
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Subject
Engineering sciences. Technology
Source (journal)
PLoS ONE
Volume/pages
10(2015) :6 , p. 1-14 , 14 p.
ISSN
1932-6203
1932-6203
Article Reference
e0129479
Carrier
E-only publicatie
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
One of nature's premier illustrations of adaptive evolution concerns the tight correspondence in birds between beak morphology and feeding behavior. In seed-crushing birds, beaks have been suggested to evolve at least in part to avoid fracture. Yet, we know little about mechanical relationships between beak shape, stress dissipation, and fracture avoidance. This study tests these relationships for Darwin's finches, a clade of birds renowned for their diversity in beak form and function. We obtained anatomical data from micro-CT scans and dissections, which in turn informed the construction of finite element models of the bony beak and rhamphotheca. Our models offer two new insights. First, engineering safety factors are found to range between 1 and 2.5 under natural loading conditions, with the lowest safety factors being observed in species with the highest bite forces. Second, size-scaled finite element (FE) models reveal a correspondence between inferred beak loading profiles and observed feeding strategies (e.g. edge-crushing versus tip-biting), with safety factors decreasing for base-crushers biting at the beak tip. Additionally, we identify significant correlations between safety factors, keratin thickness at bite locations, and beak aspect ratio (depth versus length). These lines of evidence together suggest that beak shape indeed evolves to resist feeding forces.
E-info
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Full text (open access)
https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/irua/180b65/127042.pdf
E-info
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Handle