Combining multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for industrial site investigation
Faculty of Sciences. Bioscience Engineering
European journal of soil science. - London
, p. 688-698
University of Antwerp
The soil at industrial sites is frequently characterized by very heterogeneous properties, which are often related to physical disturbance and contamination. A conventional approach to characterize the soil, with only a limited number of invasive observations, fails to capture the full extent of soil heterogeneity. Proximal soil sensing provides efficient tools to record spatially dense soil information. Nevertheless, because the output of most sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the simultaneous characterization of different soil properties requires the use of multiple sensors. Here, we apply multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to survey a former gasworks site in a seaport area of Belgium. We used the EMI and GPR sensors in a motorized system to obtain densely sampled measurements of apparent electrical conductivity, apparent magnetic susceptibility and contrasts in relative dielectric permittivity. Our study shows that the sensors give detailed information on the variation in these electromagnetic soil properties. Interpretation of the variation in terms of the stratification of the soil was hampered by localized anthropogenic disturbances. However, the sensors provided complementary information that enabled the identification, discrimination and accurate location of several of these localized disturbances, including underground utility services such as electric cables, buried structures such as the remains of foundations and contamination by salts. Because these represent typical targets in industrial site investigation, we conclude that multi-receiver EMI and stepped frequency GPR provide a useful set of tools to expedite the investigation of industrial sites.