A comparative assessment of human exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A and eight bisphenols including bisphenol A via indoor dust ingestion in twelve countries
Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environment international. - Oxford
, p. 183-191
University of Antwerp
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in 388 indoor (including homes and microenvironments) dust samples collected from 12 countries (China, Colombia, Greece, India, Japan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, U.S., and Vietnam). The concentrations of TBBPA and sum of eight bisphenols (Sigma BPs) in dust samples ranged from <1 to 3600 and from 13 to 110,000 ng/g, respectively. The highest TBBPA concentrations in house dust were found in samples from Japan (median: 140 ng/g), followed by South Korea (84 ng/g) and China (23 ng/g). The highest Sigma BPs concentrations were found in Greece (median: 3900 ng/g), Japan (2600 ng/g) and the U.S. (2200 ng/g). Significant variations in BPA concentrations were found in dust samples collected from various microenvironments in offices and homes. Concentrations of TBBPA in house dust were significantly correlated with BPA and Sigma BPs. Among the nine target chemicals analyzed, BPA was the predominant compound in dust from all countries. The proportion of TBBPA in sum concentrations of nine phenolic compounds analyzed in this study was the highest in dust samples from China (27%) and the lowest in Greece (0.41%). The median estimated daily intake (EDI) of Sigma BPs through dust ingestion was the highest in Greece (1.6-17 ng/kg bw/day), Japan (1.3-16) and the U.S. (0.89-9.6) for various age groups. Nevertheless, in comparison with the reported BPA exposure doses through diet, dust ingestion accounted for less than 10% of the total exposure doses in China and the U.S. For TBBPA, the EDI for infants and toddlers ranged from 0.01 to 3.4 ng/kg bw/day, and dust ingestion is an important pathway for exposure accounting for 3.8-35% (median) of exposure doses in China. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.