Uptake and toxicity of Cd, Cu and Pb mixtures in the isopod Asellus aquaticus from waterborne exposureUptake and toxicity of Cd, Cu and Pb mixtures in the isopod Asellus aquaticus from waterborne exposure
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE)
The science of the total environment. - Amsterdam
537(2015), p. 170-179
University of Antwerp
The present study evaluated interactions of waterborne Cd, Cu and Pb mixtures on metal uptake rates in the isopod Asellus aquaticus and related this to mixture effects on toxicity. Secondly, it was assessed whether observed mixture effects were better related to isopod body concentrations compared to exposure concentrations. Isopods were exposed for 10 days to single, binary and tertiary mixtures including five different concentrations of Cd (0.107 to 277 mu g L-1), Cu (3.35 to 2117 mu g L-1) and Pb (0.782 to 443 mu g L-1). Mortality was assessed every day while isopod body concentrations, growth (biomass) and energy reserves (glycogen, lipid and protein reserves) were assessed at the end of the experiment. Synergistic interactions of combined Cd and Pb exposure on Cd and Pb uptake as well as on growth rates and mortality rates were observed. Mixture effects of combined Cd and Pb exposure on toxicity endpoints were directly related to increased Cd uptake in the Cd + Pb treatment. No mixture interactions of Cu on Cd or Pb uptake (and vice versa), nor on toxicity endpoints were observed. All toxicity endpoints were related to body concentrations. However, mixture effects disappeared when growth and mortality rates were expressed on body concentrations instead of exposure concentrations. By combining information of mixture effects on metal uptake with mixture toxicity data, the present study provides more insight in the way metal mixtures interfere with aquatic organisms and how they can induce toxic effects. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.