Polycatégorialité et évolution diachronique : les emplois préfixoïdes de après (-) et arrière (-)Polycatégorialité et évolution diachronique : les emplois préfixoïdes de après (-) et arrière (-)
Polycategoriality and diachronic evolution: the prefixoid uses of apros(-) 'after' and arriare(-) 'back'
Faculty of Arts. Linguistics and Literature
Antwerp Center for Pragmatics (IPrA Research Center)
Langue franšaise. - Paris
(2015):187, p. 137-153
University of Antwerp
This article looks into the origin of the uses of arriere- and apres- as formatives, as well as into the way they have been grammaticalized, for instance in arriere-cour 'backyard' and apres-match 'after match'. The analysis of the functioning of these two terms in Old French shows that they both were multi-categorial, since they could be used as a preposition, a conjunction or a particle, but that they each also had a preferential use: apres was fundamentally a preposition, whereas arriere was rather used as an adverb or a particle. The paper then shows that in the case of apres, it was its prepositional use that allowed it to emerge as a formative, whereas the use of arriere as a formative resulted from a substitution of the ancient prefix r(i)ere-. The paper furthermore raises the question of the degree to which both elements have been grammaticalized, and thus also of their status: have they turned into true prefixes in Modern French or should they still be conceived of as prefixoids?