Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
The science of the total environment. - Amsterdam
, p. 350-358
University of Antwerp
Human breast milk samples (n = 87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410 ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90 ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40 ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5 ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (BM). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.