Title
Chromatographic impurity fingerprinting of genuine and counterfeit Cialis (R) as a means to compare the discriminating ability of PDA and MS detection Chromatographic impurity fingerprinting of genuine and counterfeit Cialis (R) as a means to compare the discriminating ability of PDA and MS detection
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Publication type
article
Publication
Oxford :Pergamon ,
Subject
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Talanta : the international journal of pure and applied analytical chemistry. - Oxford, 1958, currens
Volume/pages
146(2016) , p. 540-548
ISSN
0039-9140
ISI
000363815600077
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Public health is threatened worldwide by counterfeit medicines. Their quality, safety and efficacy cannot be guaranteed since no quality control is performed during and/or after the manufacturing process. Characterization of these products is a very important topic. During this study a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array (HPLC-PDA) and a High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method were developed to analyse both genuine and counterfeit samples of Cialis. The obtained PDA and MS fingerprints were explored and modelled using unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and supervised Partial Least Squares and its discriminant variant (PLS, PLS-DA) as well the classification methods including Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and the k Nearest Neighbour classifier (kNN). Both MS1 and MS2 data and data measured at 254 nm and 270 nm were used with the aim to test the potential complementarity of PDA and MS detection. First, it was checked if both groups of fingerprints can support differentiation between genuine and counterfeit medicines. Then, it was verified if the obtained multivariate models could be improved by combining information present in MS and PDA fingerprints. Survey of the models obtained for the 254 nm data, 270 nm data and 254_270 nm data combination showed that a tendency of discrimination could be observed with PLS. For the 270 nm data and 254_270 nm data combination a perfect discrimination between genuine and counterfeit medicines is obtained with PLS-DA and SIMCA. This shows that 270 nm alone performs equally well compared to 254_270 nm. For the MS1 and MS1_MS2 data perfect models were obtained using PLS-DA and kNN, indicating that the MS2 data do not provide any extra useful information to acquire the aimed distinction. When combining MS1 and 270 nm perfect models were gained by PLS-DA and SIMCA, which is very similar to the results obtained for PDA alone. These results show that both detectors have a potential to reveal chemical differences between genuine and counterfeit medicines and thus enable the construction of diagnostic models with excellent recognition. However, if a larger sample set, including more possible sources of variation, is analysed more sophisticated techniques such as MS might be necessary. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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