Five patients with a chromosome 1q21.1 triplication show macrocephaly, increased weight and facial similarities
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
European journal of medical genetics. - Paris
, p. 503-508
University of Antwerp
Recurrent rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 that occur as a consequence of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) show considerable variability in phenotypic expression and penetrance. Chromosome 1q21.1 deletions (OMIM 612474) have been associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability, autism, schizophrenia, cardiac abnormalities and cataracts. Phenotypic features in individuals with 1q21.1 duplications (OMIM 612475) include macrocephaly, learning difficulties, developmental delay, intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic features. Half of these patients show autistic behavior. For the first time, we describe five patients, including monozygotic twins, with a triplication of the 1q21.1 chromosomal segment. Facial features common to all patients include a high, broad forehead; a flat and broad nasal bridge; long, downslanted palpebral fissures and dysplastic, low-set ears. Likely associated features include macrocephaly and increased weight. We observed that the triplications arose through different mechanisms in the patients: it was de novo in one patient, inherited from a triplication carrier in two cases, while the father of the twins is a 1q21.1 duplication carrier. The de novo triplication contained copies of both maternal alleles, suggesting it was generated by a combination of inter- and intra-chromosomal recombination. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.