Synthetic phenolic antioxidants and their metabolites in indoor dust from homes and microenvironments
Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environmental science and technology / American Chemical Society. - Easton, Pa
, p. 428-434
University of Antwerp
Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), are extensively used in food, cosmetic and plastic industries. Nevertheless, limited information is available on human exposures, other than the dietary sources, to SPAs. In this study, occurrence of 9 SPAs and their metabolites/degradation products was determined in 339 indoor dust collected from 12 countries. BHT was found in 99.5% of indoor dust samples from homes and microenvironments at concentrations that ranged from < LOQ to 118 mu g/g and 0.10 to 3460 mu g/g, respectively. This is the first study to measure BHT metabolites in house dust (0.01-35.1 mu/g) and their concentrations accounted for 9.2-58% of the sum concentrations (Sigma SPAs). 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol (BHT OH), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (BHT-Q) were the major derivatives of BHT found in dust samples. The concentrations of gallic acid esters (gallates) in dust from homes and microenvironments ranged from < LOQ to 18.2 and < LOQ to 684 mu g/g, respectively. The concentrations and profiles of SPAs varied among countries and microenvironments. Significantly elevated concentrations of SPAs were found in dust from an e-waste workshop (1530 mu g/g). The estimated daily intake (EDT) of BHT via house dust ingestion ranged from 0.40 to 222 ng/kg/d (95th percentile).