Publication
Title
Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys
Author
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating, the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) x min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener -dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Environment international. - Oxford
Publication
Oxford : 2016
ISSN
0160-4120
Volume/pages
87(2016), p. 101-107
ISI
000368951700012
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Full text (open access)
The author-created version that incorporates referee comments and is the accepted for publication version Available from 01.02.2018
Full text (publishers version - intranet only)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 10.03.2016
Last edited 20.05.2017
To cite this reference