Molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 ICUs from eight European countries
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
The journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. - London, 1975, currens
, p. 45-52
University of Antwerp
Objectives: Rigorous screening of carriage of MRSA, rather than relying on clinical isolates, together with standardized methods and centralized genotyping allowed for a more comprehensive and complete estimation of the prevalence and epidemiology of the isolates in the ICUs involved in the study.The European epidemiology of MRSA is changing with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA during 2 years in 13 ICUs in France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. Methods: Surveillance cultures for MRSA from nose and wounds were obtained on admission and twice weekly from all patients admitted to an ICU for >= 3 days. The first MRSA isolate per patient was genotyped in a central laboratory by MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec (sub)typing. Risk factors for patients with an unknown history of MRSA colonization were identified. Results: Overall, 14aEuroS390 ICU patients were screened, of whom 8519 stayed in an ICU for >= 3 days. Overall MRSA admission prevalence was 3.9% and ranged from 1.0% to 7.0% for individual ICUs. Overall MRSA acquisition rate was 2.5/1000 patient days at risk and ranged from 0.2 to 8/1000 patient days at risk per ICU. In total, 557 putative MRSA isolates were submitted to the central laboratory for typing, of which 511 (92%) were confirmed as MRSA. Each country had a distinct epidemiology, with ST8-IVc (UK-EMRSA-2/-6, USA500) being most prevalent, especially in France and Spain, and detected in ICUs in five of eight countries. Seventeen (3%) and three (< 1%) isolates were categorized as CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA, respectively. Risk factors for MRSA carriage on ICU admission were age > 70 years and hospitalization within 1 year prior to ICU admission. Conclusions: The molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 European ICUs in eight countries was homogeneous within, but heterogeneous between, countries. CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA genotypes and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing isolates were detected sporadically.