Mixture toxicity of nickel and zinc to daphnia magna is noninteractive at low effect sizes but becomes synergistic at high effect sizes
De Schamphelaere, Karel A. C.
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
New York, N.Y.
Environmental toxicology and chemistry. - New York, N.Y.
, p. 1091-1102
University of Antwerp
To incorporate metal mixture toxicity effects into risk-assessment procedures, more information is needed about combined and interactive effects of metal mixtures during chronic exposure. The authors investigated the toxicity of binary Ni-Zn mixtures in 2 independent full-factorial experiments using standard chronic (21-d) Daphnia magna reproduction toxicity tests. Global statistical analysis (i.e., when considering all investigated mixture treatments simultaneously) showed noninteractive effects according to the concentration addition model and significant synergistic effects according to the independent action model. However, treatment-specific statistical analysis revealed that both occurrence and type of interactive effect were dependent on the effect size at which Ni and Zn were combined in the mixture. Only noninteractive or weakly antagonistic effects occurred in mixture treatments in which each of the individual metals produced only weak adverse effects on its own (i.e., 20% reduction of reproductive performance). On the other side of the spectrum, synergistic mixture effects occurred in all mixture treatments where both metals already caused a >20% (for independent action) and a >40% (for concentration addition) effect on reproduction on their own. Because low effect sizes are the most relevant in most regulatory frameworks, the authors' data suggest that the concentration addition and independent action mixture toxicity models can both serve as conservative models for predicting effects of Ni-Zn mixtures. The present study highlights the importance of investigating metal mixture toxicity at low effect sizes and warns against extrapolating conclusions about metal mixture interactions from high to low effect sizes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1091-1102. (c) 2015 SETAC