Governance with empty pockets : the education sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Institute of Development Policy and Management
Beverly Hills, Calif.
Development and change. - Beverly Hills, Calif.
, p. 472-494
University of Antwerp
The education sector has virtually disappeared from the Congolese state budget since the mid-1980s. Yet schools have both managed to survive on school fees and to reproduce the public education sector, even though complete privatization would have been a realistic option. In this article, the authors understand this engagement with the state whilst simultaneously bending its rules as a negotiation strategy for better terms of inclusion in the state system. Different state actors cultivate their own practical versions of official rules. In this way, they create space to respond to parents demand for education, to increase the number of teachers and their salaries far beyond what would otherwise have been possible, and to reproduce the system over time. One may wonder, however, whether the resilience of the sector in the face of the implosion of the state budget does not come at the price of building a more inclusive and higher quality education system.