The effect of pain on presence and severity of depressive disorders in older persons : the role of perceived control as mediatorThe effect of pain on presence and severity of depressive disorders in older persons : the role of perceived control as mediator
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute (CAPRI)
Journal of affective disorders. - Amsterdam
197(2016), p. 239-244
University of Antwerp
Background: The relation between pain and depression is reported repeatedly. It is suggested that pain by itself is not sufficient for the development of depression. We aim to study the role of perceived control as mediating factor in the relation between pain and depressive disorders at old age. Methods: Baseline data of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used, including 345 persons with DSM-IV depressive disorders (CIDI) and 125 control persons without depressive disorders, aged 60 years and over. Measures included severity of depression (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology), presence and intensity of pain and pain-related disability (Chronic Graded Pain scale), and a general measure of perceived control over life (Pearlin Mastery Scale). In mediation analyses direct and indirect effects were estimated. Results: Older persons with depressive disorders reported pain more frequently with higher intensity than controls. After controlling for confounding, the direct effect of pain intensity and the indirect effect through perceived control on depression were OR=1.10 (CI 95%.98;1.25) and OR=1.24 (1.15;1.35). For pain-related disability these were OR=1.14 (1.02;1.29) and OR=1.21 (1.13;1.29). In depressed persons there was a strong direct effect of pain intensity and disability and a smaller indirect effect through perceived control on severity of depressive symptoms. Limitations: This cross-sectional study cannot give evidence on causal direction. Conclusions: Perceived control plays an important role as mediator in the association between pain and presence of depression. In depressed persons however, the direct role of pain seems more important in the association with depression severity. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.