Hard versus soft : a comparative study of multi-functional urban water defence in Singapore and New York City
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 50TH ISOCARP CONGRESS: URBAN TRANSFORMATIONS: CITIES AND WATER
50th ISOCARP Congress, SEP 23-26, 2014, Gdynia, POLAND
, p. 915-928
University of Antwerp
The necessity and urgency of multi-functional water defence are steadily increasing due to global competition among cities, as well as impacts of climate change. Among its many methods, water defence is generally divided into hard and soft approach. Hard approach mainly uses man-made constructions such as storm surge barriers, dikes, or groynes, while soft approach adopts a more natural approach, with an extensive use of landscape. In order to observe the applications and implications of different water defence methods, a set of parameters that consists of physical, social, ecological and city branding aspects are presented in this paper. Additionally, two case studies in Marina Barrage, Singapore and BIG U Plan, New York City are given to illustrate the use of aforementioned parameters. Both projects are chosen because of their similar urban context, with the initial hypothesis of hard approach adopted by Singapore and soft by New York City. However, a latter investigation by the parameter analysis proves the opposite. In other words, the design parameters are suitable as a preliminary analysis tool in testing the initial hypothesis and finding suitable precedents of multi-functional water defence.