Used water and nutrients : recovery perspectives in a 'panta rhei' context
Faculty of Sciences. Bioscience Engineering
Oxford :Elsevier sci ltd
Engineering sciences. Technology
Bioresource technology. - Barking
, p. 199-208
University of Antwerp
There is an urgent need to secure global supplies in safe water and proteinaceous food in an eco-sustainable manner, as manifested from tensions in the nexus Nutrients-Energy-Water-Environment-Land. This paper is concept based and provides solutions based on resource recovery from municipal and industrial wastewater and from manure. A set of decisive factors is reviewed facilitating an attractive business case. Our key message is that a robust barrier must clear the recovered product from its original status. Besides refined inorganic fertilizers, a central role for five types of microbial protein is proposed. A resource cycling solution for the extremely confined environment of space habitation should serve as an incentive to assimilate a new user mindset. To achieve the ambitious goal of sustainable food security, the solutions suggested here need a broad implementation, hand in hand with minimizing losses along the entire fertilizer-feed-food-fork chain. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.