Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditionsEvaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
2016Abingdon :Taylor & Francis, 2016
EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT
Food additives and contaminants : part A : chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. - Abingdon, 2008, currens
33(2016):5, p. 893-904
University of Antwerp
After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan T copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC-and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40 degrees C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70 degrees C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 mu g kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.