Effective ionisation coefficients and critical breakdown electric field of at elevated temperature : effect of excited states and ion kinetics
Electrical breakdown by the application of an electric field occurs more easily in hot gases than in cold gases because of the extra electron-species interactions that occur as a result of dissociation, ionization and excitation at higher temperature. This paper discusses some overlooked physics and clarifies inaccuracies in the evaluation of the effective ionization coefficients and the critical reduced breakdown electric field of CO2 at elevated temperature, considering the influence of excited states and ion kinetics. The critical reduced breakdown electric field is obtained by balancing electron generation and loss mechanisms using the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) derived from the Boltzmann transport equation under the two-term approximation. The equilibrium compositions of the hot gas mixtures are determined based on Gibbs free energy minimization considering the ground states as well as vibrationally and electronically excited states as independent species, which follow a Boltzmann distribution with a fixed excitation temperature. The interaction cross sections between electrons and the excited species, not reported previously, are properly taken into account. Furthermore, the ion kinetics, including electronion recombination, associative electron detachment, charge transfer and ion conversion into stable negative ion clusters, are also considered. Our results indicate that the excited species lead to a greater population of high-energy electrons at higher gas temperature and this affects the Townsend rate coefficients (i.e. of electron impact ionization and attachment), but the critical reduced breakdown electric field strength of CO2 is only affected when also properly accounting for the ion kinetics. Indeed, the latter greatly influences the effective ionization coefficients and hence the critical reduced breakdown electric field at temperatures above 1500 K. The rapid increase of the dissociative electron attachment cross-section of molecular oxygen with rising vibrational quantum number leads to a larger electron loss rate and this enhances the critical reduced breakdown electric field strength in the temperature range where the concentration of molecular oxygen is relatively high. The results obtained in this work show reasonable agreement with experimental results from literature, and are important for the evaluation of the dielectric strength of CO2 in a highly reactive environment at elevated temperature.
Source (journal)
Plasma sources science and technology / Institute of Physics. - Bristol, 1992, currens
Bristol : Institute of Physics, 2016
25:5(2016), p. 1-22
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Creation 30.09.2016
Last edited 26.03.2017
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