Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and its receptors in Alzheimers disease (AD) brain regions : differential findings in AD with and without depression
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Journal of Alzheimer's disease
, p. 1-14
University of Antwerp
Co-existing depression worsens Alzheimers disease (AD) pathology. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a newly identified (neuro)inflammatory mediator in the pathophysiologies of both AD and depression. This study aimed to compare NGAL levels in healthy controls, AD without depression (ADD), and AD with co-existing depression (AD+D) patients. Protein levels of NGAL and its receptors, 24p3R and megalin, were assessed in nine brain regions from healthy controls (n = 19), ADD (n = 19), and AD+D (n = 21) patients. NGAL levels in ADD patients were significantly increased in brain regions commonly associated with AD. In the hippocampus, NGAL levels were even further increased in AD+D subjects. Unexpectedly, NGAL levels in the prefrontal cortex of AD+D patients were comparable to those in controls. Megalin levels were increased in BA11 and amygdala of AD+D patients, while no changes in 24p3R were detected. These findings indicate significant differences in neuroimmunological regulation between AD patients with and without co-existing depression. Considering its known effects, elevated NGAL levels might actively promote neuropathological processes in AD with and without depression.