Publication
Title
Decision making in very severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-5) : a literature review of acute neurosurgical management
Author
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Patients presenting with an early Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Score of 3-5 after blunt or penetrating skull-brain assaults are categorized as having sustained a very severe traumatic brain injury (vs-TBI). This category is often overlooked in literature. Impact on patients and families lives however is huge and the question "whether to surgically treat or not" frequently poses a dilemma to treating physicians. Little is known about mortality and outcome, compared to what is known for the group of severe TBI patients (s-TBI) (GCS 3-8). The main goal of this review was creating more awareness for the neurosurgical treatment of this patient group. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search (2000-2017) was conducted discussing "severe TBI (GCS 3-8)", "(neuro) surgical management" and "outcome". Ultimately 45 out of 2568 articles were included for further analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Mortality rates and unfavorable outcome are high for s-TBI patients and as expected higher for vs-TBI patients. Mortality rates reach up to 100% for specific subgroups with GCS=3 and bilaterally fixed dilated pupils. Functional outcome was generally poor, but sometimes, although seldom, favorable in specific groups of vs-TBI patients after neurosurgical intervention. Factors like initial GCS, pupillary abnormalities and age seem to be associated with worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this literature review showed high rates of unfavorable outcome and mortality for vs-TBI patients. However, some studies, reporting relatively low mortality rates, reported "good" outcome for specific groups of vs-TBI patients. It is concluded that clinical decision making, in particular those on treatment limitations, should never be taken based on the GCS alone.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Journal of neurosurgical sciences. - Milano
Publication
Turin : Edizioni minerva medica , 2018
ISSN
0390-5616
Volume/pages
62 :2 (2018) , p. 153-177
ISI
000445305500007
Pubmed ID
29125266
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Project info
CENTER-TBI: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 08.10.2018
Last edited 20.09.2021
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