Chromium speciation and fractionation in ground and surface waters in the vicinity of chromite ore processing residue disposal sites
Chromium concentrations of up to 91 mg l(-1) were found by ICP-OES for ground water from nine boreholes at four landfill sites in an area of S.E. Glasgow/S. Lanarkshire where high-lime chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a local chemical works had been deposited from 1830 to 1968. Surface water concentrations of up to 6.7 mg l(-1) in a local tributary stream fell to 0.11 mg l(-1) in the River Clyde. Two independent techniques of complexation/colorimetry and speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) showed that Cr was predominantly (>90%) in hexavalent form (Cr-VI) as CrO42-, as anticipated at the high pH (7.5-12.5) of the sites. Some differences between the implied and directly determined concentrations of dissolved Cr-III, however, appeared related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content. This was most significant for the ground water from one borehole that had the highest TOC concentration of 300 mg F 1 and at which <3% of Cr was in the form of Cr-VI. Subsequent ultrafiltration produced significant decreases in Cr concentration with decreasing size fractions, e.g. <0.45 mum. <100 kDa. <30 kDa and <1 kDa by the tangential-flow method. As this appeared related more to concentrations of humic substances than of TOC per se, horizontal bed gel electrophoresis of freeze-dried ultrafilter retentates was carried out to further characterise the Cr-III-organic complex. This showed for the main Cr-containing fraction, 100 kDa-0.45 pm, that the Cr was associated with a dark brown band characteristic of organic (humic) matter. Comparison of gel electrophoresis and FTIR results for ultrafilter retentates of ground water from this borehole with those for a borehole at another site where Cr-VI predominated suggested the influence of carboxylate groups, both in reducing Cr-VI and in forming soluble Cr-III-humic complexes, The implications of this for remediation strategies (especially those based on the addition of organic matter) designed to reduce highly mobile and carcinogenic (CrO42-)-O-VI to the much less harmful Cr-III as insoluble Cr(OH)(3) are discussed.
Source (journal)
Journal of environmental monitoring. - Cambridge, 1999 - 2012
Cambridge : 2002
1464-0333 [online]
4 :2 (2002) , p. 235-243
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Creation 08.10.2018
Last edited 04.09.2021