Publication
Title
Simultaneous determination of 14 urinary biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers by LC-MS/MS
Author
Abstract
Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) are a group of chemicals widely added to consumer products. PFRs are quickly metabolized in the human body into two types of metabolites, (1) dialkyl and diaryl phosphate esters (DAPs), such as diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP); and (2) hydroxylated PFRs (HO-PFRs), such as 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) and 2-hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEHEP). Existing analytical methods usually focus on DAPs; therefore, human biomonitoring data on HO-PFRs remain scarce. In this study, an analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous quantification of multiple PFR metabolites in human urine, covering eight DAPs and six HO-PFRs. Sample preparation was optimized to include all target compounds using Bond-Elut C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges, followed by instrumental analysis based on liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Method performance was validated according to established guidelines and satisfactory results were obtained for all metabolites in terms of recovery, linearity, limits of quantification, precision, and accuracy. Recoveries ranged from 87 to 112%. Method detection limits from 0.002 ng/mL for 2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl diphenyl phosphate (5-HO-EHDPHP) to 0.66 ng/mL for 4-hydroxyphenyl phenyl phosphate (4-HO-DPHP). Seven PFR metabolites were frequently detected in a small biomonitoring study (n = 14), among them bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), 5-HO-EHDPHP, and BBOEHEP. Highest mean concentrations were found for DPHP, 2-ethylhexyl phenyl phosphate (EHPHP), and BCIPHIPP, while 4-HO-DPHP, 5-HO-EHDPHP, and EHPHP were detected in urine for the first time. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate that the developed method can be used for the simultaneous determination of 14 urinary biomarkers of exposure to PFRs.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. - Berlin, 2002, currens
Publication
Berlin : 2018
ISSN
1618-2642
Volume/pages
410 :30 (2018) , p. 7871-7880
ISI
000450071400005
Pubmed ID
30291389
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (publisher's version - intranet only)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Project info
Advanced tools for exposure assessment and biomonitoring (A-TEAM).
Chemical information mining of wastewater – From human exposure to environmental fate of emerging plasticizers and flame retardants
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 09.10.2018
Last edited 21.10.2021
To cite this reference