Publication
Title
Comparative evaluation of lead emissions and toxicity potential in the cradle-to-gate life cycle of lead halide perovskites
Author
Abstract
Lead halide perovskites are an emerging class of photovoltaic (PV) materials that have drawn intense interest due to their power conversion efficiencies above 22% and their potential for low-cost fabrication. However, the toxicity of lead causes considerable concern about its use in perovskite solar cells at large scales. Here, we quantified the lead utilization and the toxicity potential of lead-based perovskite PV in potential commercial production. Lead intensity and toxic emissions in the lead halide perovskite PV life cycle can be 5-100 times lower than those in the coal fuel life cycle and those in a representative electricity mix for the United States, for PV operational lifetimes of 20 years. We introduce the metric âtoxicity payback timeâ, which is <2 years for perovskite PVs produced by and displacing the U.S. electricity mix. Toxicity potential associated with the energy of manufacturing a PV system dominates that associated with release of embodied lead. Therefore, the use of lead should not alone preclude the commercialization of perovskite PVs; instead, effort should be focused on development of low-energy manufacturing processes and long service lifetimes. Additionally, detailed investigations are needed to quantify the full life cycle of commercial production of perovskites and to minimize potential emissions.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Energy: the international journal. - Oxford
Publication
Oxford : Pergamon-elsevier science ltd , 2019
ISSN
0360-5442
Volume/pages
166 (2019) , p. 1089-1096
ISI
000455694300110
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
Full text (publisher's version - intranet only)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 08.11.2018
Last edited 11.09.2021
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