Publication
Title
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen porosimetry (NP) : two novel techniques for the evaluation of urinary stone hardness
Author
Abstract
Purpose To evaluate urinary stones using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen porosimetry (NP). Traditionally, stones are categorized as hard or soft based on their chemical composition. We hypothesized that stone hardness is associated not only with its chemical composition but also with its internal architecture. SAXS and NP are well-known techniques in material sciences. We tested whether SAXS and NP are applicable for evaluating human urinary stones and whether they provide information at the nanoscale level that could be useful in clinical practice. Methods Thirty endoscopically removed urinary stones were studied. Standard techniques for stone analysis were used to determine the stone composition. SAXS was used to evaluate the solid part of the stone by measuring the crystal thickness (T) and the fractal dimension (D-m/D-s), while NP was used to evaluate the porosity of the stone, i.e., the pore radius, pore volume, and specific surface area (SSA). Results All stones were successfully analyzed with SAXS and NP. Each stone demonstrated unique characteristics regarding T, D-m/D-s, pore radius, pore volume, and SSA. Significant differences in those parameters were seen among the stones with almost identical chemical compositions. The combination of high T, high SSA, low D-m/D-s, low pore volume, and low pore radius is indicative of a hard material and vice versa. Conclusions SAXS and NP can be used to evaluate human urinary stones. They provide information on stone hardness based on their nanostructure characteristics, which may be different even among stones with similar compositions
Language
English
Source (journal)
International urology and nephrology. - Budapest
Publication
Budapest : 2018
ISSN
0301-1623
Volume/pages
50:10(2018), p. 1779-1785
ISI
000446422300005
Pubmed ID
30128922
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (publisher's version - intranet only)
UAntwerpen
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 09.11.2018
Last edited 04.09.2021
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