In vitro antileishmanial activity of leaf and stem extracts of seven Brazilian plant species
Ethnopharmacological relevance Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects people all over the world. The number of cases of leishmaniasis is increasing and the drugs used for its treatment are toxic and not always effective. The recognition of the global nature of this disease and its direct or indirect effects on health economics and actions focuses attention on the development of new therapeutic options. In Brazil, this parasitic disease is endemic in many regions. The plants used by the population against leishmaniasis can be good starting points in the search of new lead compounds for antileishmanial drugs. Aim of the study The aim of the present study was to investigate the antileishmanial activity of extracts from leaves and stems of seven Brazilian plant species used by the population to treat leishmaniasis, and symptoms that might be related to Leishmania infections. Materials and methods Twenty two extracts from seven plants belonging to five different botanical families were prepared by different methods and evaluated for their effect on the viability of promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum (MHOM/BR/1967/BH46) using the resazurin-based colorimetric assay. The extracts were considered active when they inhibited the growth of promastigotes in a percentage greater than or equal to 50% at 100 and 200 µg/mL. The active samples were further investigated to determine IC50, CC50 and SI values against promastigote forms of L. infantum. The active and non-cytotoxic extracts (SI> 10) were evaluated against amastigote forms of L. infantum. In addition, the active extracts against the amastigote forms were analyzed by TLC and HPLC, while the EtOAc extract of stems from Aspidosperma tomentosum was also evaluated by GC/MS. Results Among the twenty two extracts evaluated, two were considered active against L. infantum. The EtOH extract of leaves from Dyospiros hispida (IC50 55.48 ± 2.77 µg/mL and IC50 80.63 ± 13.17 µg/mL, respectively) and the EtOAc extract of stems from Aspidosperma tomentosum (IC50 9.70 ± 2.82 µg/mL and IC50 15.88 ± 1.53 µg/mL, respectively) inhibited significantly the growth of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. infantum. Some extracts, although active in the initial screening, were considered toxic since the SI was lower than 10. In TLC and HPLC analysis the leaf extract of Dyospiros hispida showed the presence of anthraquinones, terpenes and saponins, and in the EtOAc extract of stems from Aspidosperma tomentosum alkaloids and flavonoids were detected. In addition, in the latter extract the indole alkaloids uleine and dasycarpidone could be identified by GC/MS. Conclusions The ethnopharmacological data of Aspidosperma tomentosum and Dyospiros hispida in part support the results found in the biological models used. Extracts of Aspidosperma tomentosum and Dyospiros hispida presented promising results against L. infantum.
Source (journal)
Journal of ethnopharmacology. - Lausanne
Lausanne : 2019
232(2019), p. 155-164
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Publications with a UAntwerp address
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Creation 03.01.2019
Last edited 11.09.2021
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