Chronic dehydration induces injury pathways in rats, but does not mimic histopathology of chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities
CINAC-patients present renal proximal tubular cell lysosomal lesions which are also observed in patients experiencing calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity, suggesting that CINAC is a toxin-induced nephropathy. An alternative hypothesis advocates chronic dehydration as a major etiological factor for CINAC. Here, we evaluated histological and molecular changes in dehydrated versus toxin exposed rats. Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 6) had free access to drinking water (control group). Group 2 (n = 8) was water deprived for 10 h per 24 h, 5 days/week and placed in an incubator (37 °C) for 30 min/h during water deprivation. Group 3 (n = 8) underwent daily oral gavage with cyclosporine (40 mg/kg body weight). After 28 days, renal function, histopathology and proteomic signatures were analysed. Cyclosporine-treated rats developed focal regions of atrophic proximal tubules with associated tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. PASM staining revealed enlarged argyrophilic granules in affected proximal tubules, identified as lysosomes by immunofluorescent staining. Electron microscopy confirmed the enlarged and dysmorphic phenotype of the lysosomes. Overall, these kidney lesions resemble those that have been previously documented in farmers with CINAC. Dehydration resulted in none of the above histopathological features. Proteomic analysis revealed that dehydration and cyclosporine both induce injury pathways, yet of a clear distinct nature with a signature of toxicity only for the cyclosporine group. In conclusion, both cyclosporine and dehydration are injurious to the kidney. However, dehydration alone does not result in kidney histopathology as observed in CINAC patients, whereas cyclosporine administration does. The histopathological analogy between CINAC and calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity in rats and humans supports the involvement of an as-yet-unidentified environmental toxin in CINAC etiology.
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Scientific reports. - London, 2011, currens
London : Nature Publishing Group , 2023
13 :1 (2023) , p. 1-14
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CINAC, a major globally emerging chronic renal disease of unknown origin: unraveling the molecular mechanism and etiology to allow diagnostic tool development.
Toxin induced lysosomal storage disease: a new etiological, mechanistic, diagnostic and prognostic paradigm for the worldwide increasing prevalence of agrochemical-associated nephropathy.
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Publications with a UAntwerp address
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Creation 30.10.2023
Last edited 31.10.2023
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