Risk factors for natural hearing evolution in newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection
Importance: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the major cause of congenital nonhereditary sensorineural hearing loss in children. Currently, criteria to identify infants at increased risk for unfavorable hearing outcome are lacking. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with cCMV-related hearing improvement, hearing deterioration, and late-onset hearing loss. Design, setting, and participants: This multicenter cohort study included patients from 6 secondary and tertiary hospitals enrolled in the Flemish CMV registry (Belgium). Newborns with untreated cCMV infection with at least 4-year audiological follow-up were included. Patients who presented with other possible causes of sensorineural hearing loss were excluded. Data were collected for 15 years (January 1, 2007, to February 7, 2022) and analyzed from September 26, 2022, to January 16, 2023. Main outcomes and measures: Primary outcome was hearing evolution (per-ear analysis; described as stable hearing, improvement, or deterioration). The association of gestational characteristics, clinical findings, timing of seroconversion, viral load, and hearing status at birth with hearing evolution was investigated using effect sizes (Cramer V, odds ratio [OR], or Hedges g). Results: Of the 387 children, 205 of 385 with nonmissing data were male (53.2%), 113 (29.2%) had a symptomatic infection, and 274 (70.8%) had an asymptomatic infection. Every child was 4 years or older at final hearing evaluation. A total of 701 of 774 ears (90%) showed stable hearing (normal hearing or stable hearing loss since birth) over time. Late-onset hearing loss (normal hearing at birth followed by hearing loss) was present in 43 of 683 ears (6.3%). Among children with hearing loss present at birth, 24 of 34 ears (70.6%) had hearing deterioration, and 6 of 91 ears (6.6%) had hearing improvement. Prematurity was associated with a higher chance of hearing improvement (OR, 12.80; 95% CI, 2.03-80.68). Late-onset hearing loss was more prevalent in a first trimester infection (OR, 10.10; 95% CI, 2.90-34.48). None of the 104 ears of children with a third trimester seroconversion developed late-onset hearing loss. Conclusions and relevance: Findings of this cohort study support that ongoing audiological follow-up for untreated children with congenital hearing loss is important, as the majority of patients had hearing deterioration. The timing of seroconversion was associated with the risk of developing late-onset hearing loss. These insights can aid in parental counseling, patient stratification, and follow-up. Future research should focus on the effect of treatment, the influence of determined risk factors, and the study of eventual new risk factors in patients at high risk to develop hearing loss.
Source (journal)
JAMA otolaryngology, head and neck surgery / American Medical Association; American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. - Chicago, Ill., 2013, currens
Chicago, Ill. : American Medical Association , 2024
2168-6181 [print]
2168-619X [online]
150 :1 (2024) , p. 30-38
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Publications with a UAntwerp address
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Web of Science
Creation 13.11.2023
Last edited 03.05.2024
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