Quality assurance and safety of hippocampal avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation in the multicenter randomized phase III trial (NCT01780675)
Objective: NCT01780675, a multicenter randomized phase III trial of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) versus PCI with hippocampal sparing in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) investigated neurocognitive decline and safety. As part of quality assurance, we evaluated if hippocampal avoidance (HA)-PCI was performed according to the NCT01780675 trial protocol instructions, and performed a safety analysis to study the incidence and location of brain metastases for patients treated with HA-PCI.Methods: This retrospective analysis evaluated the quality of the irradiation given in the randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing SCLC patients receiving PCI with or without hippocampal avoidance, using intensity mod-ulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The dose distribution for each patient receiving HA-PCI was retrieved and analyzed to evaluate if the treatment dose constraints were met. A ques-tionnaire was sent out to all participating sites, and data on radiotherapy technique, pre-treatment dummy runs, phantom measurements and treatment electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry were collected and analyzed. As part of the safety analysis, the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized to-mography (CT) scans on which cranial disease progression was first diagnosed were collected and matched to the radiotherapy planning dose distribution. The matched scans were reviewed to analyze the location of the brain metastases in relation to the prescribed dose.Results: A total of 168 patients were randomized in the NCT01780675 trial in 10 centers in the Netherlands and Belgium from April 2013 until March 2018. Eighty two patients receiving HA-PCI without evidence of brain metastases were analyzed. All patients were treated with 25 Gy in 10 fractions. Dummy runs and phantom measurements were performed in all institutions prior to enrolling patients into the study. The radiotherapy (RT) plans showed a median mean bilateral hippocampal dose of 8.0 Gy, range 5.4-11.4 (constraint <= 8.5 Gy). In six patients (7.3%) there was a protocol violation of the mean dose in one or both hippocampi. In four of these six patients (4.9%) the mean dose to both hippocampi exceeded the constraint, in 1 patient (1.2%) only the left and in 1 patient (1.2%) only the right hippocampal mean dose was violated (average median dose left and right 8.9 Gy). All patients met the trial dose constraint of V 115% PTV <= 1%; however the D max PTV constraint of <= 28.75 Gy was violated in 22.0% of the patients. The safety analysis showed that 14 patients (17.1%) developed cranial progression. No solitary brain metastases in the underdosed region were found. Two out of 11 patients with multiple brain metastasis developed metastasis in the underdosed region(s). Conclusions: The radiotherapy quality within the HA-PCI trial is performed according to the protocol guidelines. The dose constraints to the hippocampi are met in the vast majority of cases. In all patients, the volume of the brain for which a higher dose was accepted, is according to the trial. However, within this volume there are small areas with higher doses than advised.
Source (journal)
Journal of the National Cancer Center
3 :2 (2023) , p. 135-140
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
Publication type
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Creation 04.12.2023
Last edited 07.12.2023
To cite this reference