Publication
Title
An overview of the use of anti-angiogenic agents in the treatment of thymic epithelial tumors
Author
Abstract
Angiogenesis significantly influences the carcinogenesis of thymic epithelial tumors (TET). Both thymomas and thymic carcinoma (TC) overexpress VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 and -2. This review aims to provide an appraisal of the use of anti-angiogenics in the treatment of TET. The literature research identified 16 studies that were deemed eligible for further analysis. Seven studies assessed the clinical efficacy of sunitinib and five studies the use of apatinib and/or anlotinib. The multicenter Japanese phase II REMORA trial investigated the efficacy of lenvatinib, which is a multi-targeted inhibitor of VEGFR, FGFR, RET, c-Kit, and other kinases. The objective response rate was 38% (25.6–52%), which is the highest documented in TET that progressed after first-line chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic agents may be useful in the treatment of TET, which are not amenable to curative treatment. Their toxicity profile seems to be acceptable. However, angiogenesis inhibitors do not appear to have a major influence on either thymomas or TC, although multikinase inhibitors may have some effect on TC. The current evidence suggests that the most active agent is lenvatinib, whereas sunitinib could be proposed as an acceptable second-line therapy for TC. Further research concerning the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors with anti-angiogenic drugs is warranted.
Language
English
Source (journal)
International journal of molecular sciences
Publication
2023
ISSN
1422-0067
1661-6596
DOI
10.3390/IJMS242317065
Volume/pages
24 :23 (2023) , p. 1-15
Article Reference
17065
ISI
001116037500001
Pubmed ID
38069386
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identifier
Creation 09.12.2023
Last edited 16.02.2024
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