Essays on competition and cooperation in the port and shipping industry
The shipping and port industry involves a complex interplay between cooperation and competition. In the past decades, the market has witnessed unprecedented scenes, including not just the cut-throat competition among shipping lines, ports, and maritime transport chains but also the formation of giant shipping alliances, consolidation in shipping, mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures in the port operating market, and the mergers of corporatized or privatized managing bodies of ports. Understanding the multidimensionality in the strategy of competition and cooperation (co-opetition) is beneficial to the competitiveness of both private firms and public organizations. So, this dissertation attempts to make sense of the complexity, where various actors are involved, mainly without a clear overarching purpose or deliberate joint strategy under certain circumstances, and understand the economic motivations and strategy behind them. This thesis discusses several cases in the context of port/shipping cooperation and competition. As this is a paper-based PhD dissertation, all chapters cover various aspects of the overall PhD theme of competition and cooperation in the ports and shipping industry. However, all chapters – some of which are based on papers already published in scholarly journals - can be read independently as standalone papers. This PhD dissertation is structured as follows. Chapter 1 discusses an incentive framework to solve the collaboration problem between shipping lines and railway operators in the port area. This chapter presents a conceptual framework for vertical collaboration in the maritime port-hinterland transport chain. Chapter 2 investigates the benefit allocation of voyage integration/synchronization among cooperating shipping lines. Chapter 3 analyzes the effects of port objective orientation of port authority and service differentiation on capacity, service price, profit, and social welfare under cooperating or competing scenarios, which contributes to the literature about how the privatization and service differentiation will affect the decision of the port authority in competing or cooperative scenarios. Chapter 4 looks at how the capacity expansion (vertical integration between port and shipping line) will affect the goal of different participants, including port operators, port authorities, and the integrated shipping line with its rivals. Chapter 5 presents an adaptation of the model presented in Chapter 3 to investigate imposing an emission control tax on vessels and port operations in the port area in the context of port competition/cooperation between a private port and a landlord port.
Antwerp : University of Antwerp, Faculty of Business and Economics , 2023
183 p.
Supervisor: Notteboom, Theo [Supervisor]
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Creation 12.12.2023
Last edited 16.12.2023
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