Publication
Title
Limitations of PLX3397 as a microglial investigational tool : peripheral and off-target effects dictate the response to inflammation
Author
Abstract
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), play a critical role in CNS homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Pexidartinib (PLX3397), a colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) receptor inhibitor, is widely used to deplete microglia, offering flexible options for both long- term depletion and highly versatile depletion-repopulation cycles. However, the potential impact of PLX3397 on peripheral (immune) cells remains controversial. Until now, the microglia-specificity of this type of compounds has not been thoroughly evaluated, particularly in the context of peripherally derived neuroinflammation. Our study addresses this gap by examining the effects of PLX3397 on immune cells in the brain, liver, circulation and bone marrow, both in homeostasis and systemic inflammation models. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that PLX3397 treatment not only influences the levels of tissue- resident macrophages, but also affects circulating and bone marrow immune cells beyond the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). These alterations in peripheral immune cells disrupt the response to systemic inflammation, consequently impacting the phenotype irrespective of microglial depletion. Furthermore, we observed that a lower dose of PLX3397, which does not deplete microglia, demonstrates similar (non-) MPS effects, both in the periphery and the brain, but fails to fully replicate the peripheral alterations seen in the higher doses, questioning lower doses as a 'peripheral control' strategy. Overall, our data highlight the need for caution when interpreting studies employing this compound, as it may not be suitable for specific investigation of microglial function in the presence of systemic inflammation.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Frontiers in immunology. - Place of publication unknown
Publication
Place of publication unknown : 2023
ISSN
1664-3224
DOI
10.3389/FIMMU.2023.1283711
Volume/pages
14 (2023) , p. 1-18
Article Reference
1283711
ISI
001115991100001
Pubmed ID
38077359
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identifier
Creation 09.01.2024
Last edited 15.02.2024
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