Publication
Title
Cognitive performance and exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in children : evidence from a cross-sectional analysis of two European mother-child cohorts
Author
Abstract
The knowledge of the effects of organophosphate flame retardants on children's neurodevelopment is limited. The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the association between exposure to organophosphate flame retardants and children's neurodevelopment in two European cohorts involved in the Human Biomonitoring Initiative Aligned Studies. The participants were school-aged children belonging to the Odense Child Cohort (Denmark) and the PCB cohort (Slovakia). In each cohort, the children's neurodevelopment was assessed through the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, using two different editions. The children's urine samples, collected at one point in time, were analyzed for several metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants. The association between neurodevelopment and each organophosphate flame retardant metabolite was explored by applying separate multiple linear regressions based on the approach of MM-estimation in each cohort. In the Danish cohort, the mean +/- standard deviation for the neurodevelopment score was 98 +/- 12; the geometric mean (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) standardized by creatinine (crt) was 0.52 mu g/g crt (95% CI = 0.49; 0.60), while that of diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) standardized by crt was 1.44 mu g/g crt (95% CI = 1.31; 1.58). The neurodevelopment score showed a small, negative, statistically imprecise trend with BDCIPP standardized by crt (beta = -1.30; 95%CI = -2.72; 0.11; p-value = 0.07) and no clear association with DPHP standardized by crt (beta = -0.98; 95%CI = -2.96; 0.99; p-value = 0.33). The neurodevelopment score showed a negative trend with BDCIPP (beta = -1.42; 95% CI = -2.70; -0.06; p-value = 0.04) and no clear association with DPHP (beta = -1.09; 95% CI = -2.87; 0.68; p-value = 0.23). In the Slovakian cohort, the mean +/- standard deviation for the neurodevelopment score was 81 +/- 15; the geometric mean of BDCIPP standardized by crt was 0.18 mu g/g crt (95% CI = 0.16; 0.20), while that of DPHP standardized by crt was 2.24 mu g/g crt (95% CI = 2.00; 3.52). The association of the neurodevelopment score with BDCIPP standardized by crt was -0.49 (95%CI = -1.85; 0.87; p-value = 0.48), and with DPHP standardized by crt it was -0.35 (95%CI = -1.90; 1.20; p-value = 0.66). No clear associations were observed between the neurodevelopment score and BDCIPP/DPHP concentrations that were not standardized by crt. No clear associations were observed with bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP) in either cohort, due to the low detection frequency of this compound. In conclusion, this study provides only limited evidence of an inverse association between neurodevelopment and exposure to BDCIPP and DPHP. The timing of exposure and effect modification of other organophosphate flame retardant metabolites and other substances should be the subject of further investigations that address this scientific hypothesis.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Toxics. - 2013, currens
Publication
2023
ISSN
2305-6304
DOI
10.3390/TOXICS11110878
Volume/pages
11 :11 (2023) , p. 1-15
Article Reference
878
ISI
001113785400001
Pubmed ID
37999530
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Project info
European Human Biomonitoring Iniative (HBM4EU).
European Human Biomonitoring Iniative (HBM4EU).
European Human Biomonitoring Iniative (HBM4EU).
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identifier
Creation 09.01.2024
Last edited 13.01.2024
To cite this reference