Breast cancer and breast cancer screening in Niger : an epidemiological and public health prospect
Breast cancer (BC) is a worldwide public health concern. It is the leading cancer morbidity and mortality within female population with outstanding geographical variations. It has been documented that BC prevalence and mortality are increasing in sub-Saharan African countries. In Niger, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), some 1.585 BC cases are estimated yearly. These estimates are forecasted to reach 3.682 yearly cases by 2040. BC is also identified as the first cause of cancer related mortality standing for twenty-seven percent (27.7%) of the overall cancer mortality within the female population. The average ratio of children per women in the country is one of the highest of the world with the current average standing at 7.6 children. The rationale of this thesis was therefore to address a research hole in the breast cancer scientific literature in Niger Republic. In fact, following a literature review using The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) model, it turned out that overall, literature on the epidemiology and public health scrutiny of breast cancer is very limited. We established the first milestone of the validation of Breast cancer awareness Measure (BCAM) in the country, the BCAM was an acceptable, reliable and valid tool when applied to women and midwives in Niger. Nevertheless, it requires some refining to better suit some social and contextual factors. This thesis established that in Niger, overall, women's knowledge of breast cancer is low. If they had some knowledge of breast cancer symptoms and warning signs, Women's knowledge of breast cancer risk and protective factors remains poor. Niger women have reported practicing clinical breast examination with a general practitioner, mainly female one. Furthermore, we analyzed 27 years of cancer registry in Niger from 1992 to 2018. It came out that BC is the most common cancer recorded in Niger, followed by gynecological cancers with cervical and ovarian, then followed by liver, skin and colon/rectum cancer. Despite a slow start-up, cancer cases registration in Niger showed a significant increase, This is in line with other researches that established an increasing trend for BC in sub-Saharan Africa. BC survival was found to be low as in other sub-Saharan African countries. Follow up of mortality cases remains a recognized challenge in the country.
Antwerp : University of Antwerp, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , 2022
74 p.
Supervisor: Van Hal, Guido [Supervisor]
Supervisor: Van Dam, Peter [Supervisor]
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Creation 31.01.2024
Last edited 13.02.2024
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