Publication
Title
Assessment of legacy and alternative halogenated organic pollutants in outdoor dust and soil from e-waste sites in Nigeria : concentrations, patterns, and implications for human exposure
Author
Abstract
E-waste is often processed informally, particularly in developing countries, resulting in the release of harmful chemicals into the environment. This study investigated the co-occurrence of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants (10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), syn and anti-dechlorane plus (DP)), 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in 20 outdoor dust and 49 soil samples from 7 e-waste sites in Nigeria. This study provides the first report on alternative flame retardants (DBDPE and DP) in Nigeria. The total concentration range of the selected classes of compounds was in the order: & sum;10PBDEs (44-12300 ng/g) > DBDPE (4.9-3032 ng/g) > & sum;2DP (0.7-278 ng/g) > & sum;(32)PCBs (4.9-148 ng/g) > & sum;(12)OCPs (1.9-25 ng/g) for dust, and DBDPE (4.9-9647 ng/g) > & sum;10PBDEs (90.3-7548 ng/g) > & sum;(32)PCBs (6.1-5025 ng/g) > & sum;(12)OCPs (1.9-250 ng/g) > & sum;2DP (2.1-142 ng/g) for soil. PBDEs were the major contributors to POP pollution at e-waste dismantling sites, while PCBs were the most significant contributors at e-waste dumpsites. DBDPE was found to be significantly associated with pollution at both e-waste dismantling and dumpsites. Estimated daily intake (EDI) via dust and soil ingestion and dermal adsorption routes ranged from 1.3 to 2.8 ng/kg bw/day and 0.2-2.9 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. In the worst-case scenario, EDI ranged from 2.9 to 10 ng/kg bw/day and 0.8-5.8 ng/kg bw/day for dust and soil, respectively. The obtained intake levels posed no non-carcinogenic risk, but could increase the incidence of cancer at some of the studied e-waste sites, with values exceeding the USEPA cancer risk lower limit (1.0 x 10(-6)). Overall, our results suggest that e-waste sites act as emission point sources of POPs.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Environmental pollution. - London, 1987, currens
Publication
London : 2024
ISSN
0269-7491 [print]
1873-6424 [online]
DOI
10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2023.123032
Volume/pages
342 (2024) , p. 1-12
Article Reference
123032
ISI
001135717900001
Pubmed ID
38036088
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (publisher's version - intranet only)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Project info
Synergising international research Studies into the environmental fate and behaviour of toxic organic chemicals in the waste stream (INTERWASTE).
INTERWASTE: Synergising International Research Studies into the Environmental Fate and Behaviour of Toxic Organic Chemicals in the Waste Stream
From exposome to effect assessment of contaminants in human and animal models (EXPOSOME).
Silicone Wristbands as personal ExposurE monitor to Predict the internal exposure to emerging contaminants (SWEEP).
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identifier
Creation 01.02.2024
Last edited 08.02.2024
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