Plasmonic photocatalytic coatings with self-cleaning, antibacterial, air and water purifying properties tested according to ISO standards
ISO 10678:2010, ISO 22197–1 and 2, ISO 27447:2019 and ISO 27448:2009 for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes (methylene blue), air pollution (NOx and acetaldehyde), bacteria (E. coli and S. aureus) and solid organic fouling (oleic acid) are performed on plasmon-embedded TiO2 thin films on Borofloat® glass, as well as the commercially available titania-based self-cleaning glass PilkingtonActivTM. These standardised protocols measure the performance for the four main applications of photocatalytic materials: water purification, air purification, antibacterial and self-cleaning activity, respectively. The standards are performed exactly as prescribed to measure the activity under UV irradiation, and also in a slightly adapted manner to measure the performance under simulated solar light or visible light. Performing experiments according to ISO standards, enables an objective comparison amongst samples tested here, as well as with results from literature. This is a major asset compared to the myriad of customised setups used in laboratories worldwide that hinder a fair comparison. We point at the importance of meticulously following the ISO instructions, as we have noticed that multiple published studies adopting the ISO standards too often deviate from these protocols, thereby nullifying the added value of standardized testing. Following the ISO tests to the letter, we have demonstrated the superior performance of a previously developed plasmonic titania coating with fully embedded gold-silver nanoparticles towards all four application areas. Furthermore, our empirical data strongly support the need for a nuanced understanding of standardized testing, to ensure accurate assessment of photocatalytic materials. An examination of the ISO standards used in this work reveals notable drawbacks, including concerns about the reliability of the methylene blue degradation protocol, the issues of HNO3 accumulation in the NOx removal test, and limitations in assessing antibacterial activity and water contact angles.
Source (journal)
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology: A: chemistry. - Lausanne
Lausanne : 2024
451 (2024) , p. 1-10
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The author-created version that incorporates referee comments and is the accepted for publication version Available from 15.09.2024
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Creation 19.02.2024
Last edited 20.02.2024
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