One Health surveillance of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales in Belgium and the Netherlands between 2017 and 2019
i-4-1-Health Study Group
Background Colistin serves as the last line of defense against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and spread of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales (ColR-E) using a One Health approach in Belgium and in the Netherlands. Methods In a transnational research project, a total of 998 hospitalized patients, 1430 long-term care facility (LTCF) residents, 947 children attending day care centres, 1597 pigs and 1691 broilers were sampled for the presence of ColR-E in 2017 and 2018, followed by a second round twelve months later for hospitalized patients and animals. Colistin treatment incidence in livestock farms was used to determine the association between colistin use and resistance. Selective cultures and colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were employed to identify ColR-E. A combination of short-read and long-read sequencing was utilized to investigate the molecular characteristics of 562 colistin-resistant isolates. Core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) was applied to examine potential transmission events. Results The presence of ColR-E was observed in all One Health sectors. In Dutch hospitalized patients, ColR-E proportions (11.3 and 11.8% in both measurements) were higher than in Belgian patients (4.4 and 7.9% in both measurements), while the occurrence of ColR-E in Belgian LTCF residents (10.2%) and children in day care centres (17.6%) was higher than in their Dutch counterparts (5.6% and 12.8%, respectively). Colistin use in pig farms was associated with the occurrence of colistin resistance. The percentage of pigs carrying ColR-E was 21.8 and 23.3% in Belgium and 14.6% and 8.9% in the Netherlands during both measurements. The proportion of broilers carrying ColR-E in the Netherlands (5.3 and 1.5%) was higher compared to Belgium (1.5 and 0.7%) in both measurements. mcr-harboring E. coli were detected in 17.4% (31/178) of the screened pigs from 7 Belgian pig farms. Concurrently, four human-related Enterobacter spp. isolates harbored mcr-9.1 and mcr-10 genes. The majority of colistin-resistant isolates (419/473, 88.6% E. coli; 126/166, 75.9% Klebsiella spp.; 50/75, 66.7% Enterobacter spp.) were susceptible to the critically important antibiotics (extended-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and aminoglycosides). Chromosomal colistin resistance mutations have been identified in globally prevalent high-risk clonal lineages, including E. coli ST131 (n = 17) and ST1193 (n = 4). Clonally related isolates were detected in different patients, healthy individuals and livestock animals of the same site suggesting local transmission. Clonal clustering of E. coli ST10 and K. pneumoniae ST45 was identified in different sites from both countries suggesting that these clones have the potential to spread colistin resistance through the human population or were acquired by exposure to a common (food) source. In pig farms, the continuous circulation of related isolates was observed over time. Inter-host transmission between humans and livestock animals was not detected. Conclusions The findings of this study contribute to a broader understanding of ColR-E prevalence and the possible pathways of transmission, offering insights valuable to both academic research and public health policy development.
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19 :2 (2024) , p. 1-25
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Publications with a UAntwerp address
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Creation 27.02.2024
Last edited 04.03.2024
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