Publication
Title
Effect of screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis on incidence of these infections in men who have sex with men and transgender women taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (the Gonoscreen study) : results from a randomised, multicentre, controlled trial
Author
Abstract
Background Guidelines recommend screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis at three anatomical sites (urethra, anus, and pharynx) every 3 months (3 × 3) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We present the first randomised controlled trial to compare the effect of screening versus non-screening for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis on the incidence of these infections in MSM and transgender women taking PrEP. Methods A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of 3 × 3 screening for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis versus non-screening was done among MSM and transgender women taking PrEP in five HIV reference centers in Belgium. Participants attended the PrEP clinics quarterly for 12 months. N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis was tested at each visit in both arms, but results were not provided to the non-screening arm, if asymptomatic. The primary outcome was incidence rate of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis infections in each arm, assessed in the per-protocol population. Non-inferiority of the non-screening arm was proven if the upper limit of the 95% CI of the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was lower than 1·25. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04269434 , and is completed. Findings Between Sept 21, 2020, and June 4, 2021, 506 participants were randomly assigned to the 3 × 3 screening arm and 508 to the non-screening arm. The overall incidence rate of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis was 0·155 cases per 100 person-days (95% CI 0·128–0·186) in the 3 × 3 screening arm and 0·205 (95% CI 0·171–0·246) in the non-screening arm. The incidence rate was significantly higher in the non-screening arm (IRR 1·318, 95% CI 1·068–1·627). Participants in the non-screening arm had a higher incidence of C trachomatis infections and symptomatic C trachomatis infections. There were no significant differences in N gonorrhoeae infections. Participants in the non-screening arm consumed significantly fewer antimicrobial drugs. No serious adverse events were reported. Interpretation We failed to show that non-screening for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis is non-inferior to 3 × 3 screening in MSM and transgender women taking PrEP in Belgium. However, screening was associated with higher antibiotic consumption and had no effect on the incidence of N gonorrhoeae. Further research is needed to assess the benefits and harms of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis screening in this population.
Language
English
Source (journal)
The Lancet HIV. - Oxford, 2014, currens
Publication
Oxford : Elsevier , 2024
ISSN
2405-4704 [print]
2352-3018 [online]
DOI
10.1016/S2352-3018(23)00299-0
Volume/pages
(2024) , 35 p.
Pubmed ID
38423024
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
The author-created version that incorporates referee comments and is the accepted for publication version Available from 26.08.2024
UAntwerpen
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Publications with a UAntwerp address
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Creation 04.03.2024
Last edited 05.03.2024
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