Publication
Title
Retrospective spatiotemporal study of antidepressants in Slovenian wastewaters
Author
Abstract
This study utilizes wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to evaluate spatiotemporal changes in the con-sumption of antidepressants before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovenia. Composite 24-h influent wastewater samples (n = 210) were collected from six wastewater treatment plants between summer 2019 and spring 2021. The samples were extracted using 96-well solid-phase extraction and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The measured concentrations of target antidepressant bio-markers were then converted to population-normalised mass loads (PNMLs), taking into account flow rate and catchment population. Ten biomarkers, including amitriptyline, bupropion, bupropion-OH, citalopram, nor-citalopram, normirtazapine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, trazodone, and moclobemide, were above the lower limit of quantification and were included in the spatiotemporal temporal assessment. The highest PNMLs were detected for O-desmethylvenlafaxine (mean +/- SD: 82.1 +/- 21.2 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and venlafaxine (38.0 +/- 10.6 mg/day/1000 inhabitants), followed by citalopram (27.0 +/- 10.7 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). In addition, the mean metabolite/parent compound ratios were comparable with other WBE studies indicating consumption rather than direct disposal. Overall, the results indicated significant spatiotemporal variations depending on the location, and the PNMLs of most biomarkers increased during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (spring of 2020). However, no clear spatial patterns were revealed related to the pandemic.
Language
English
Source (journal)
The science of the total environment. - Amsterdam, 1972, currens
Publication
Amsterdam : Elsevier , 2023
ISSN
0048-9697 [print]
1879-1026 [online]
DOI
10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2023.166586
Volume/pages
903 (2023) , p. 1-10
Article Reference
166586
ISI
001163024000001
Pubmed ID
37640073
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Project info
Novel approaches for the estimation of the use of psychoactive pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs by wastewater analysis.
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identifier
Creation 04.03.2024
Last edited 07.03.2024
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