Publication
Title
The combined effect of systemic antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors on Clostridioides difficile infection and recurrence
Author
Abstract
Background Antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are recognized risk factors for acquisition and recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), yet combined effects remain unclear.Objectives To assess the short- and long-term effects of antibiotics and PPIs on CDI risk and recurrence.Methods Population-based study including all 43 152 patients diagnosed with CDI in Sweden (2006-2019), and 355 172 matched population controls without CDI. The impact of antibiotics and PPIs on CDI risk and recurrence was explored for recent (0-30 days) and preceding (31-180 days) use prior to their first CDI diagnosis, using multivariable conditional logistic regression presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and other drugs.Results Compared to controls, the combined effect of recent PPIs and antibiotics [ORAB+PPI = 17.51 (17.48-17.53)] on CDI risk was stronger than the individual effects [ORAB = 15.37 (14.83-15.93); ORPPI = 2.65 (2.54-2.76)]. Results were less pronounced for exposure during the preceding months. Dose-response analyses showed increasing exposure correlated with CDI risk [recent use: ORAB = 6.32 (6.15-6.49); ORPPI = 1.65 (1.62-1.68) per prescription increase]. Compared to individuals without recurrence (rCDI), recent [ORAB = 1.30 (1.23-1.38)] and preceding [ORAB = 1.23 (1.16-1.31); ORPPI = 1.12 (1.03-1.21)] use also affected the risk of recurrence yet without significant interaction between both. Recent macrolides/lincosamides/streptogramins; other antibacterials including nitroimidazole derivates; non-penicillin beta lactams and quinolones showed the strongest association with CDI risk and recurrence, particularly for recent use. PPI use, both recent and preceding, further increased the CDI risk associated with almost all antibiotic classes.Results Compared to controls, the combined effect of recent PPIs and antibiotics [ORAB+PPI = 17.51 (17.48-17.53)] on CDI risk was stronger than the individual effects [ORAB = 15.37 (14.83-15.93); ORPPI = 2.65 (2.54-2.76)]. Results were less pronounced for exposure during the preceding months. Dose-response analyses showed increasing exposure correlated with CDI risk [recent use: ORAB = 6.32 (6.15-6.49); ORPPI = 1.65 (1.62-1.68) per prescription increase]. Compared to individuals without recurrence (rCDI), recent [ORAB = 1.30 (1.23-1.38)] and preceding [ORAB = 1.23 (1.16-1.31); ORPPI = 1.12 (1.03-1.21)] use also affected the risk of recurrence yet without significant interaction between both. Recent macrolides/lincosamides/streptogramins; other antibacterials including nitroimidazole derivates; non-penicillin beta lactams and quinolones showed the strongest association with CDI risk and recurrence, particularly for recent use. PPI use, both recent and preceding, further increased the CDI risk associated with almost all antibiotic classes.Conclusion Recent and less recent use of PPIs and systemic antibiotics was associated with an increased risk of CDI, particularly in combination.
Language
English
Source (journal)
The journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. - London, 1975, currens
Publication
Oxford : Oxford univ press , 2024
ISSN
0305-7453 [print]
1460-2091 [online]
DOI
10.1093/JAC/DKAE012
Volume/pages
79 :3 (2024) , p. 608-616
ISI
001148024200001
Pubmed ID
38267263
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
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Creation 04.03.2024
Last edited 07.03.2024
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