Publication
Title
Investigation of in vitro biotransformation of tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate and confirmation in human urine
Author
Abstract
Tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) is one of the major organophosphate flame retardants present in the indoor and outdoor environment. Knowledge of biotransformation pathways is important to elucidate potential bioavailability and toxicity of TCIPP and to identify relevant biomarkers. This study aimed to identify TCIPP metabolites through in vitro human metabolism assays and finally to confirm these findings in urine samples from an occupationally exposed population to propose new biomarkers to accurately monitor exposure to TCIPP. TCIPP was incubated with human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol to identify Phase I and Phase II metabolites, by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Using a suspect-screening approach, the established biomarkers bis (1-chloro-2-propyl) hydrogen phosphate (BCIPP) and 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) were identified. In addition, carboxyethyl bis (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP-M1), bis (1-chloropropan-2-yl) (-oxopropan-2-yl) phosphate (TCIPP-M2) and 1-chloro-3-hydroxypropan-2-yl bis (1-chloropropan-2-yl) phosphate (TCIPP-M3) were identified. TCIPP-M2, an intermediate product, was not reported before in literature. In urine samples, apart from BCIPP and BCIPHIPP, TCIPP-M1 and TCIPP-M3 were identified for the first time. Interestingly, BCIPP showed the lowest detection frequency, likely due to the poor sensitivity for this compound. Therefore, TCIPP-M1 and TCIPP-M3 could serve as potential additional biomarkers to more efficiently monitor TCIPP exposure in humans.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Current research in toxicology
Publication
2024
DOI
10.1016/J.CRTOX.2024.100164
Volume/pages
6 (2024) , p. 1-11
Article Reference
100164
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Record
Identifier
Creation 28.03.2024
Last edited 29.03.2024
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