Publication
Title
UPLC-TQD-MS/MS method validation for quality control of alkaloid content in lepidium meyenii (Maca)-containing food and dietary supplements
Author
Abstract
Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), also known as Maca or Peruvian ginseng, is a common ingredient in food supplements with many claimed health benefits, such as improved endurance, increased energy level, and enhanced sexual properties. Due to potential toxicity of its chemicals, including alkaloids, some regulatory authorities, e.g., in Belgium, Germany, the United States, expressed concerns about the safe consumption of Maca root. However, due to the lack of commercial standards, no established analytical method currently exists for this purpose. The current project focuses on the quantitative determination of potentially toxic alkaloids from Maca. The current study presents the first analytical method for quality control of alkaloid content in Maca-containing food and dietary supplements, assessing the presence of 11 major compounds belonging to three different classes, i.e., imidazole, β-carboline, and pyrrole alkaloids. An accurate, rapid, and sensitive UPLC-TQD-MS/MS method is reported, which was fully validated according to the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and SANTE/11312/2021 guidelines. To ensure the method’s applicability and practicability in the absence of primary standards, validation of secondary standards (SSs) alongside primary standards (PSs) was also conducted for imidazole alkaloids. As a result, in Maca raw powder, total alkaloid content was found to vary from 418 to 554 ppm (mg/kg). Furthermore, all quantified imidazole alkaloids were ascertained to be the major alkaloids with the total content from 323 to 470 ppm in Maca raw powder, followed by the β-carboline and pyrrole alkaloids. It was also observed that the commercial preparation of finished products affects the total alkaloid content, evidenced by the large variation from 56 to 598 ppm. Ultimately, from a regulatory point of view, it seems advisible not to request the complete absence of the alkaloids but to impose a maximum level based on safety considerations. In addition to the analytical method, a low-cost, simple, and scalable synthetic scheme of macapyrrolins A, C, and G was reported for the first time.
Language
English
Source (journal)
ACS Omega
Publication
American Chemical Society , 2024
ISSN
2470-1343
DOI
10.1021/ACSOMEGA.3C09356
Volume/pages
(2024) , p. 1-11
Article Reference
acsomega.3c09356
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Project info
Development and validation of analytical methods for quality control of herbal food supplements (ANAHERBAFOOD).
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Record
Identifier
Creation 29.03.2024
Last edited 30.03.2024
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