Detection of bromochloro alkanes in indoor dust using a novel CP-seeker data integration tool
Bromochloro alkanes (BCAs) have been manufactured for use as flame retardants for decades, and preliminary environmental risk screening suggests they are likely to behave similarly to polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), subclasses of which are restricted as Stockholm Convention Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). BCAs have rarely been studied in the environment, although some evidence suggests they may migrate from treated-consumer materials into indoor dust, resulting in human exposure via inadvertent ingestion. In this study, BCA-C-14 mixture standards were synthesized and used to validate an analytical method. This method relies on chloride-enhanced liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-Orbitrap-HRMS) and a novel CP-Seeker integration software package for homologue detection and integration. Dust sample preparation via ultrasonic extraction, acidified silica cleanup, and fractionation on neutral silica cartridges was found to be suitable for BCAs, with absolute recovery of individual homologues averaging 66 to 78% and coefficients of variation <= 10% in replicated spiking experiments (n = 3). In addition, a total of 59 indoor dust samples from six countries, including Australia (n = 10), Belgium (n = 10), Colombia (n = 10), Japan (n = 10), Thailand (n = 10), and the United States of America (n = 9), were analyzed for BCAs. BCAs were detected in seven samples from the U.S.A., with carbon chain lengths of C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16, C-18, C-24 to C-28, C-30 and C-31 observed overall, though not detected in samples from any other countries. Bromine numbers of detected homologues in the indoor dust samples ranged Br1-4 as well as Br-7, while chlorine numbers ranged Cl2-11. BCA-C-18 was the most frequently detected, observed in each of the U.S.A. samples, while the most prevalent degrees of halogenation were homologues of Br-2 and Cl4-5. Broad estimations of BCA concentrations in the dust samples indicated that levels may approach those of other flame retardants in at least some instances. These findings suggest that development of quantification strategies and further investigation of environmental occurrence and health implications are needed.
Source (journal)
Analytical chemistry. - Washington, D.C., 1948, currens
Washington : Amer chemical soc , 2024
0003-2700 [print]
5206-882X [online]
96 :12 (2024) , p. 4942-4951
Pubmed ID
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
Full text (open access)
The author-created version that incorporates referee comments and is the accepted for publication version Available from 23.09.2024
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Project info
Assessing human exposure to chlorinated paraffins in the indoor environment (HECPAR).
From exposome to effect assessment of contaminants in human and animal models (EXPOSOME).
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Publications with a UAntwerp address
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Web of Science
Creation 29.03.2024
Last edited 10.04.2024
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