Title
Determination of localized <tex>$Fe^{2+}/Fe^{3+}$</tex> ratios in inks of historic documents by means of <tex>$\mu$</tex>-XANESDetermination of localized <tex>$Fe^{2+}/Fe^{3+}$</tex> ratios in inks of historic documents by means of <tex>$\mu$</tex>-XANES
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Research group
AXES (Antwerp X-ray Analysis, Electrochemistry and Speciation)
Publication type
article
Publication
Amsterdam,
Subject
Physics
Engineering sciences. Technology
Source (journal)
Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research: B: beam interactions with materials and atoms. - Amsterdam
Volume/pages
213(2004), p. 723-728
ISSN
0168-583X
ISI
000187020700144
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
An important part of the European cultural heritage is composed of hand-written documents. Many of these documents were drawn up with iron-gall ink. This type of ink present a serious conservation problem, as it slowly oxidizes ('burns') the paper it is written on, thereby gradually disintegrating the historic document. Acid hydrolysis of the cellulose and/or the oxidation of organic compounds promoted by radical intermediates that are formed due to the presence of Fe2+ ions are considered to be the cause of the disintegration. mu-XANES measurements were performed with a lateral resolution of 30-50 mum in order to determine the local Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in 19th C. documents from the Austrian National Archives and fragments of 16th C documents from the Polish National Library. In the 19th C documents, no significant amount of Fe2+ was detected. On the other hand, in the 16th C fragments, significant amounts of Fe2+ and appreciable differences in distribution of Fe2+ and Fe3+ within individual letters/ink stains were observed. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
E-info
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